среда, 27 февраля 2013 г.

aDNA and haplogroup I

From Journal of Archaeological Science, online 13 February 2013, there is a paper titled "Assessment of late Neolithic pastoralist's life conditions from the Wroclaw-Jagodno site (SW Poland) on the basis of  physiological stress markers", by Bohdan Gworys et al.

"The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of general environmental conditions on human organism at the final stage of the Neolithic period – in the Corded Ware culture. Two skeletons discovered in a tumulus on the outskirts of Wroclaw in the Jagodno district have been subjected to assessment."

"Determining polymorphisms of SNP type from chromosome Y resulted in categorizing skeleton from grave no. 1 with very high probability into haplogroup G, whereas skeleton from grave no. 2 with very high probability into one of three haplogroups J, I or E*."

"An analysis of polymorphism of single nucleotide (SNP) of chromosome Y from genetic material derived from both burials has brought in different results than in the case of so far analyzed aDNA materials of burials of the Corded Ware culture or partly contemporary Beaker culture which revealed the presence of haplogroups R1a1 and R1b among them (Haak et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2012). In case of the dead from Wrocław-Jagodno genetic diversity of both individuals was observed. One of them does not have clearly determined haplogroup. We should reject his affiliation to paragroup E* characteristic mainly for Africa and identified among population of Bantu (Karafet et al., 2008). On the other hand, haplogroup J was probably formed about 30000 years ago in Arabian Peninsula and it is often identified as a indicator of the Neolithic demic diffusion associated with spreading agriculture (Semino et al., 2004, 1996). Its contemporary distribution covers mainly the area of Middle East and the Mediterranean Sea basin; it sporadically occurs in Central Europe. Latest analyses show that its spreading might be a marker of later migrations (Giacomo et al., 2004). Hence the most probable is acceptance of haplogroup I as a proper one for the examined individual. It is considered that it was developed between 15000 and 30000 years ago (Karafet et al., 2008) and its spreading is associated with the expansion of the Paleolithic Gravettian culture (Semino, 2000) or population from the beginning of Holocene (Rootsi et al., 2004). Thus we should think that this individual is most probably descendant of native hunting and gathering community. Haplogroup G, identified in the second individual, belongs to widespread multiethnic groups of Europe, Asia and northern Africa. This haplogroup is largely identified among analyzed aDNA materials from Europe including the early Neolithic in Spain and Germany and the late Neolithic in France. It is a serious factor supporting a conception of spreading of Neolithic from the area of Middle East (Haak et al., 2010; Lacan et al., 2011; Rootsi et al., 2012). It may indicate very complicated development processes of
communities of the Corded Ware culture in which diverse populations participated – autochtonous deriving from hunting and gathering ancestors as well as Neolithic populations, genetically deriving from the Middle East areas but already living there since the beginning of Neolithic."

Human bone stable isotope data from Wrocław-Jagodno compared to data from different Central European sites: Denmark (Richards et al., 2003), Giecz (Reitsema et al., 2010), Herxheim (Dürrwächter et al., 2006), Lithuania (Antanaitis-Jacobs et al., 2009), Vedrovice (Smrčka et al., 2008) and Trebur (Dürrwächter et al., 2006).

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